Research the Literature on your Own
Both cholera toxin and pertussis toxin act on cytosolic proteins. These toxins do not enter the cell through any kind of plasma membrane transporter, nor do they simply diffuse across the plasma membrane. How, then, do these toxins invade cells and enter the cytoplasm?
What is a “sorting signal?” How do these help target proteins to their proper destinations?
One of the roles of the Golgi apparatus is to modify proteins, often by adding or removing monosaccharides from oligosaccharides linked to amino acid residues. What role does this kind of modification play in how lysosomal enzymes in animal cells are targeted to the lysosome rather than the plasma membrane?
Just as cells must secrete material, they must also internalize molecules from the outside of the cell through the process of endocytosis. What does this process entail? Is there a mechanism for cells to capture specific materials via endocytosis?
Ca2+ regulates synaptic vesicle fusion at the presynaptic membrane. How can the local Ca2+ concentration be regulated to provide the rapid response time needed to achieve rapid synaptic release? How can the local Ca2+ concentration be reduced after fusion to permit new vesicles to dock without fusion?
How may ts mutants be used to clone the normal gene for an essential process?
How would one construct and genetically analyze a double ts mutant to perform the genetic epistasis test described in this lecture?
How can the intrinsically fluorescent protein, GFP, be used to study the cellular localization of a Sec protein?